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Posted on May 8, 2007 in Equipment, Parent Hacks, Tips | 33 comments

Food safety for packed lunches (updated)

Food safety for packed lunches (updated)

Reusable ice blanket for packed lunches

(This post was written for today’s The Daily Tiffin, where it ran in their Tiffin Tuesday column. It’s a refresh of my original post on food safety for packed lunches.)

May is Safety and Care month on The Daily Tiffin, so I wanted to share some pointers on keeping our packed lunches safe from spoiling. In my reading, the most interesting thing I found was modern research on foods with naturally antibacterial properties, which starts to explain traditional wisdom about food spoilage around the world. There are four main methods to keep your packed lunch safe:

  1. Incorporate food and products with antibacterial properties
  2. Keep it clean: Don’t introduce bacteria into the lunch when packing
  3. Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold, using thermal jars and cold packs
  4. Pack less perishable foods, especially in the summer
    • Extra precautions for hot weather
    • Handy foods for hot weather
    • Ways to make dishes less perishable

The following are only guidelines for food safety; please make your own decisions about what you’re comfortable packing and eating (I am not a food safety authority).

 

1. Incorporate food and products with antibacterial properties

  • Foods

Japanese bento cookbooks traditionally suggest packing foods with antibacterial properties in lunches in order to keep food from spoiling. Suggested foods include umeboshi (pickled plum), wasabi, ginger, karashi, salt, shiso, parsley and vinegar (i.e. making sushi rice, or putting an umeboshi or a tablespoon or two of rice vinegar in the cooking water when making rice). Some recommend wiping the inside of the bento box with a slice of ginger before packing. This is all fine and good for Japanese food, but that’s not what I usually eat for lunch.New USDA- and NSF-funded research on foods with antibacterial properties has yielded a number of foods that fit nicely in the world food lunchbox. The strongest antibacterial foods (killing all bacteria) are evidently garlic, onion, allspice and oregano. The second strongest (killing up to 80% of bacteria) include thyme, cinnamon, tarragon, cumin (and lemongrass). The third strongest (killing up to 75% of bacteria) are capsicums, including chilies and hot peppers. The fourth strongest (killing 25% of bacteria) include white and black pepper, ginger, anise seed, celery seed, and lemon or lime juice. Honey has antibacterial properties, and the dodecenal compound in cilantro/coriander (both fresh leaves and seeds) is evidently one of the stronger antibacterials as well. (see sources 1 – 3 below)

Products
There are a number of bento products in Japan that have been treated with an antibacterial coating (i.e. flavorless compounds extracted from wasabi, etc.), designed to stave off microbial growth in packed lunches. These include aluminum food cups for cooking, plastic sheets that you place on the surface of your packed food, and food dividers that look like sushi grass. These must be touching the surface of the food to be effective. Not all food dividers and food cups are antibacterial; they must be marked “antibacterial”. I bought the products below at local dollar stores and markets in San Francisco; click the photos for larger views with the “antibacterial” character indicated.

Antibacterial food dividers and bento sheets:
Antibacterial lunch dividers and bento sheets Antibacterial bento sheet in action

Antibacterial cups:
Antibacterial food cups

2. Keep it Clean: Don’t introduce bacteria into the lunch when packing

Make sure your hands, food prep area, utensils and lunch containers are clean. When possible, use utensils (chopsticks, spoon, tongs, plastic wrap) to place, mold and arrange unwrapped food in your lunch container. If you’re using a bento box with a rubber packing strip around the lid, be sure to periodically remove, wash and thoroughly dry the packing seal (and the groove in the lid). This will keep your box clean and ensure that the packing strip does not crack, which would leave you without a watertight seal.

3. Avoid the temperature danger zone with perishable foods

  • The danger zone for bacteria growth is between 40 to 140º F (4 to 60º C, or room temperature). An extremely effective way to keep food safe until you eat it is to minimize the time food spends in this temperature zone (ideally less than three hours). The USDA’s food safety page has a number of useful guidelines.
  • Keep hot foods hot by using a pre-heated insulated thermos or food jar for liquids like curries, soups, stews, etc. To pre-heat, fill the thermos with hot water, let it stand for a minute or two, empty the thermos, and fill with hot food (close it quickly!). You can get little kid-sized 300ml thermal food jars at superstores like Target or Walmart, bigger food jars, or even large thermal lunch jars with multiple containers inside (like the Mr. Bento or Ms. Bento) from online stores Amazon.com.
  • Keep cold perishable foods cold by storing your lunch in a refrigerator (if available) or using insulated lunch bags or containers with cold gel packs. Western versions include insulated lunchboxes, the Laptop Lunchbox, Fit N Fresh containers; Japanese versions include insulated bento bags and picnic sets, bento boxes with a gel pack integrated into the lid, and insulated bento kits (with a thermal jar for the lid, two lidded side containers and an insulated carrying bag that you can put a gel pack into to carry hot and cold items at the same time). Thermal lunch jars can also be pre-chilled with ice water and used to pack chilled lunches. Flexible ice blankets are essentially a quilt of small reusable ice packs. They can be cut apart to produce many small ice packs, perfect for throwing into an insulated lunch bag (ice blankets are widely available at sporting stores, wholesale food stores and drugstores). Click on the photos below for a larger view.

Insulated Urara lunch bag Lock & Lock insulated bento setChilled bento box with built-in gel packInsulated bento setReusable ice blanket for packed lunches

4. Pack less perishable foods, especially in the summer. Rice becomes hard and unappetizing when refrigerated at low temperatures, so many Japanese forego refrigeration and cold packs for their rice-based bentos, choosing instead to incorporate antibacterial foods, pack foods that are less likely to spoil, and make their food less perishable through traditional cooking/packing methods.

A. Extra precautions for hot weather (for lunches to be eaten at room temperature)

 

  • Japanese bento cookbooks instruct you to make sure all food in a packed lunch has been thoroughly heated through to the middle, so in hot weather scramble eggs until they are dry. Avoid raw or rare meat, poultry, fish or eggs. Avoid raw fillings for rice balls (make sure tarako fish eggs are grilled). Heat (then cool) even processed meats like sausages or hot dogs before packing to kill any bacteria that may have been introduced after processing.
  • Avoid dairy products such as yogurt (especially when spooned out of a larger container).
  • Avoid moist, liquidy foods.
  • Avoid packing regular tofu in the same container as other foods as it sheds water and spoils easily.
  • Avoid raw vegetables except cherry tomatoes.
  • Avoid cut fruit as it spoils easily; pack whole fruit like a banana instead.
  • Exercise caution with cooked rice, potatoes, grains and legumes (spice heavily, mix with antibacterial foods, dry thoroughly).

 

B. Handy foods that survive summer heat

  • Cherry tomatoes
  • Rice that has been mixed with pickled vegetables, chopped pickled plum (umeboshi), or other foods with antibacterial properties
  • Whole fruit
  • Canned fruit that has been frozen in single-serving freezer containers (pack frozen to act as a cool pack)
  • One-bite jellies that have been frozen (pack frozen to act as a cool pack)
  • Juice boxes or bottled water that have been frozen (pack frozen to act as a cool pack)

C. How to make dishes less perishable

  • With moist, liquidy foods, first dry before packing (drain in a small colander or on paper towels) and pack in a paper food cup to contain any excess moisture.
  • Spice foods more heavily than usual.
  • If you’re cooking or heating foods right before packing them in a sealed container (such as a bento box) to be eaten at room temperature, be sure to cool them first before packing. Once you’ve packed the lunch, allow it to cool further with its lid off to avoid condensation on the inside of the container. This also makes the box easier to open at lunchtime (an important point for preschoolers!)

Sources:
1) 1998 Cornell study on antibacterial spices: http://www.news.cornell.edu/Chronicle/98/3.5.98/spices.html
2) Cilantro article: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2004-05/acs-is052404.php
3) CookWise, Shirley O. Corriher, 1997.
4) The New Professional Chef, Culinary Institute of America
5) USDA lunch food safety guidelines: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ftteats.html#lunch
6) USDA Freezing/Refrigerating time chart: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fttstore.html
7) Aijo Tappuri! Obento, Shufu no Tomo, 2007.
8) Obento Daijiten, Index Magazine, 2005.

Lunch in a Box is nominated for Best Food Blog in the Blogger’s Choice Awards. If you’d like to cast your vote for speedy lunch packing, click here (you can vote for multiple blogs in the same category).

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33 Comments

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  1. Very nice post!

    A couple of weeks ago I searched and searched and searched, but I couldn’t find out what “tiffin” meant. I cry “uncle!”

  2. @1 from ext_44829: Actually, you don’t need a Blogger account — just a quick registration, and they’ll e-mail you back a confirmation so you can vote (to reduce American Idol-type voting where one person just votes over and over again).

  3. Ah ha!
    Thanks so much. :)

  4. @6 from sff_corgi: Yeah, some of the blue gel packs are okay for the microwave too. I wonder how long it would keep something warm, if wrapped in an insulated lunch cloth and then put inside an insulated bag… (vs. the magic hand-warmers). Sounds like a good subject for experiment! I do remember surfing around and seeing some kind of rechargeable lunch container that keeps food warm, too.

  5. @8 from lil 1/2 pint: Yes, do! Very convenient (and cheap, and widely available).

  6. Does anyone no what store you can buy the Antibacterial food divider sheets?

  7. @10 from Monica Jones:
    If you’re local, you can get them at Ichiban Kan or Daiso (which also has branches internationally — check my SF Bay Area shopping guide for links). If you’re not in the Bay Area, I’ve seen them on eBay before.

  8. You are one smart lady! Thanks for this information. <3

  9. I was just wondering, what would you recommend packing for long periods of time during the day? I am a high school student and I’m at my school by 7AM (leave the house by 6:30) and eat lunch at about 12:16PM. With only a locker and no refrigeration what do you recommend to pack in a bento to keep it safe to eat?

  10. @13 from Mei: You’re very kind, Mei!

  11. @14 from li-chan: Well, you could take a couple of approaches. One would be to get an insulated lunch bag and some ice packs, stash your bento lunch in that, and pack whatever the heck you want to without worrying about spoilage. The other would be to use the guidelines above to pack a safer lunch for room temperature. You might also want to check out this post that I wrote earlier about cold vs. room temperature bento lunches: http://lunchinabox.net/2007/08/06/box-lunches-hot-or-cold/

  12. @ Biggie: Thank you for the help!

  13. How do you keep foods like croquettes warm? Is onigiri better warm or cold? Also, can you pack hot foods in the same container as cold foods?

  14. @18 from Pockyreiko: I don’t attempt to keep foods like croquettes warm, I just eat them room temperature with the tonkatsu sauce providing a flavor boost. You might also want to check out this post that I wrote earlier about cold vs. room temperature bento lunches: http://lunchinabox.net/2007/08/06/box-lunches-hot-or-cold/

  15. found my way here from parenthacks & have spent a looong time browsing – now you’re contributing to the delinquency of a non-minor! ;) seriously, love the blog & the ideas.

  16. @20 from marci: Ha ha, thanks marci! Enjoy the site and feel free to leave questions or comments even on old posts — I try to keep up with comments via the thingie in the right sidebar.

  17. I don’t know how I found your site last night but I have been browsing it for an hour or two. It’s opening up a whole new world to me. I avoid junk in my kids’ lunches but you have great ideas. I try to put in something crunchy, salty, sweet, dairy, protein and fruit/veg. I’m not sure they’d go for some of it. I want to make some of the jellies. Blackberry would be great as they are wild all over the place in August. After spending a lot of time browsing, I was wondering about safety especially of things like rice, but here you’ve answered it. At least it doesn’t get very warm here. It’s all so interesting and I didn’t know that about the ‘grass’ in sushi. Thanks and keep up the good work!

  18. @22 from Lynnie: Welcome to the site, Lynnie! I like your approach with different food tastes and textures — very advanced! :-)

  19. i still wonder if the disposible hand warmers would work well

  20. @24 from Tony: Try it out and let us know what happens!

  21. i have a question – are things like rice ok to be left at room temp and eaten at room temp during lunch (say after being left out for 4 hours)? What about fried rice/noodles?

    What about cooked meat or fish dishes ala chinese stir-fry style?

    Sorry if this sounds silly but my brother’s workplace does not have a microwave and yet he yearns for cooked food so I am trying to find the best way of preparing and packing food for him.

    Thanks so much.

  22. @26 from Elise: To be safe, you might want to use ice packs and an insulated lunch bag when carrying your stir fry for lunch.

  23. @27 from emy: To increase the food safety of room temperature rice, add a very small bit of vinegar (or an umeboshi sour plum) to the cooking water to stave off bacterial growth. Because four hours is longer than the 2-hour safety zone for room temperature food, you might want to use an insulated lunch bag and ice packs to pack your lunch (and spice them more heavily than usual). Hope this helps!

  24. thankyou so much for your reply, but just quickyl, so i heat before putting in bento than pack, or just leave cooled from the fridge and pack lol? And if cooled, is it best to chill in freezer, or just in fridge? Thank you so much for all your help.

  25. Hi Biggie

    I’m so happy to found your site! I pack bento about twice a week now. But usually it will be kept at room temperature (air-conditioned room) for almost 6 hours cos I eat after my gym workout. Though I’ve read all about the food safety, I’m still worried as by the time I eat my lunch, usually the food is cold.

    I usually make sandwiches and I’ve learnt not to use wet soggy ingredients. Sometimes, I’ll bring rice, with baked mushrooms, or baked pumpkin. They still taste fine, though it has turned cold.

    Any tips on what kind of lunch would be good since I eat it at room temeprature? I don’t have microwave or fridge at my workplace.

  26. @31 from Aimei: No specific recommendations on room-temperature foods, but whatever you pack, season it more strongly than you would if eating it warm. For food safety, six hours is quite a long time — I would definitely recommend using an insulated lunch bag and ice packs to keep things chilled and safe until you eat.

  27. What kind of lunch bag is considered insulated? Any idea where can we buy ice pack?

  28. Dear Sir,
    We are a food suppliers or caterers and need the bread and bun fresh and warm for at least 6/7 hours,Kindly favour us if there is any way of box .At a time we will put 500 bun in it .Kindly advise or guide any machine or heater or what.Thanks

  29. @34 from M.S.NAYYAR: I’m sorry, this sort of query is not up my alley. You’ll want to research this question elsewhere. Good luck to you!

  30. Great post. YOu make it seem so easy to share your experiences. I wish I could do as well in sharing on my blog. I just got it started and sometimes feel stuck on what to share or if it is the right thing to share. what to do?

  31. I’ve been stalking your blog for a while now – thank you for compiling all this information! Bravo!!

  32. great website, lots of great ideas,tips and very inspiring.
    I have a doubt regarding packing chicken burgers, i made chicken patties for dinner and refrigerated the leftover patties.can i pack these patties for school lunch? is it safe? it will be in room temp, but i put the plastic lunchbox in insulated lunch bag.

    Thanks